B., Stafford, M. P. 1985. 405-418. It was later discovered that these parasitoids from Argentina, originally believed to be a single-species sample, actually contained a second distinct species, which was later named Gonatocerus deleoni. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis, formerly known as H. coagulata) is a large leafhopper insect from the family Cicadellidae, similar to other species of sharpshooter… 900 University Ave. Journal of Economic Entomology 55 (5): 749-753. Natural enemies, in particular egg parasitoids, deemed safe and cleared from secure quarantine facilities were released into the environment where they attacked GWSS eggs. ), Biological Control, Plenum Press: New York, pp. A series of studies were conducted to investigate the strengths and limitations of cover cropping under the unique growing conditions representative of grape producing areas of Southern California. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA. Available at: http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/phpps/pdcp/docs/2002LegReport.pdf. It has been suggested by Simberloff and Stiling (1996) that if a natural enemy and pest have not co-evolved, non-target species are likely to be affected at least as much as the target. 2001. Following these studies, the accumulated evidence strongly indicated that the parasitoid was likely safe for release and posed no undue risk to non-target species in French Polynesia. Finally, at night, incredible numbers of GWSS would be attracted to lights and large numbers would fly into homes, shops, and business at night. Bi-weekly maps show where GWSS have been found in single cycles of trap servicing, with the prior year also listed as a comparison. The disease was being vectored by a non-native insect called the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS). The insect can fly up to one-quarter of a mile, and it frequently appears in high numbers. Cheou D. 2002. Recently in Costa Rica, X. fastidiosa has been associated with disease in avocados (Montero-Astúa et al. The disease itself wasn’t new, having been known to occur in the region since the late 1880s (table 1). The glassy-winged sharpshooter is a large leafhopper (Photos 1&2). The eighth species of cicadelid tested, Siphanta acuta (Walker) (the torpedo bug) was not a suitable host.      4.2 Gonatocerus deleoni The habitats occupied by three other native sharpshooters, however, have less overlap with GWSS in addition to being from a different tribe. Incursion of glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata in French Polynesia. Biological control of aphids in lettuce crops using in-Weld insectaries. In South America, strains of X. fastidiosa cause disease in citrus (citrus variegated chlorosis) (Hartung et al. comm. This may occur because the smaller ovipositor of G. fasciatus may be unable to pierce the chorion of older eggs as they harden during maturation. GIS is used as a decision support tool in the area wide management of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) in California. Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis: The Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter is a serious threat to California's agriculture. In the laboratory, it has been shown that floral, extrafloral nectar, and honeydew can maximize parasitoid longevity, fecundity, searching activity, and parasitism rates and female sex ratios (Tylianakis et al., 2004; Berndt and Wratten, 2005; Irvin et al., 2006b). However, only H. liturata was an ecologically acceptable host when given the opportunity to attack hosts on larger ‘whole plants’. College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Prepared by the Applied Biological Control Research Laboratory. Hartung, J. S., Beretta, J., Brlansky, R. H., Spisso, J., Lee, R. F., 1994. These insects, also commonly called leafhoppers, pierce plant tissue and ingest fluid. 2008). This harmful pest, native to the Southeastern United States and Mexico, is a type of large leafhopper that feeds on fluids in tissues of various plants. GIS is used as a decision support tool in the area wide management of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) in California. Maps; Pierce's Disease Control Program Maps Areawide Trapping Maps (Coachella, Fresno, Kern, Madera, Temecula, Tulare) Areawide Trapping. New association biological control of H. vitripennis using G. tuberculifemur raises concerns about potential unwanted impacts on native non-target species of sharp shooters. At this time naturally occurring parasitism of GWSS eggs was very low on the island of Mo’orea, the immediate neighboring island to Tahiti. Quarantine studies were performed to determine G. tuberculifemur’s viability and potential to be introduced into California as a biological control agent. View this species on GBIF This suggests these two parasitoids will attack host eggs without preference as long as eggs are of a suitable age for oviposition. Trapping data is uploaded to a central server, allowing area wide managers to determine GWSS hotspots over large areas in Fresno, Kern, Madera, Riverside, and Tulare counties. Scientific Name: Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Formerly known as Homalodisca coagulata) (Takiya et al. Although A. epos has no evolutionary history with H. vitripennis, the Minnesota strain was introduced into California in 2005, making it a “new association” biological control agent of H. vitripennis in California. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), formerly Homalodisca coagulata, is a leaf-hopper insect native to the southeastern United States and northeastern Mexico. Watery excreta known as sharpshooter rain, literally rained from infested trees because there were so many GWSS feeding on trees. It feeds on the xylem or water conducting tubes of plants. The most probable cause for GWSS population declines are natural enemies, in particular egg parasitoids, with G. ashmeadi being the major contributor to GWSS suppression at UCR Ag. Formally, the glassy-winged sharpshooter is known as Homalodisca coagulata. … A. epos is commonly collected as a parasitoid of grape leafhopper (Erythroneura spp. “About every 2 out of 10 years, it gets cold enough in the valley that glassy-winged sharpshooter populations are reduced 90 to 95 percent,” Johnson said. Homalodisca liturata, a native sharpshooter from the same tribe and genus and most similar to GWSS (Figures 10 and 11) in its egg laying and generalist plant feeding habits, is expected to be utilized by introduced Gonatocerus species for the classical biological control of H. vitripennis. Chaney, W.E. The Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter is a serious threat to California’s agriculture. In 2008, it was reported that GWSS-transmitted Pierce’s Disease threatened $4 billion of grape vine production, and another $52 billion of California’s economy associated with the grape industry. fastidiosa also threatens other crops, such as almonds ($2.8 billion), citrus ($1.1 billion), and stone fruit ($1 billion); ornamental shade trees are also at risk. Surveys have shown GWSS widely distributed in Southern California including Kern County and southern Santa Barbara County. A significant amount of laboratory work has been conducted to define basic aspects of the reproductive (Irvin and Hoddle, 2005a, b; Irvin et al., 2006, 2007; Irvin and Hoddle, 2006, 2007), and developmental biology (Pilkington and Hoddle, 2006; Chen et al., 2006a), and behavior (Velema et al., 2005; Chen et al., 2006b) of G. ashmeadi. 342-344. This rapid movement between islands strongly suggested that quarantines that were established to reduce GWSS were not working and people were still moving plants infested with GWSS eggs. Additional information. This is not only due to increased longevity allowing females more time to parasitize hosts, but also shows a direct increase in fecundity due to improved nutrition. In addition to GWSS, A. epos successfully completed development in the eggs of six other cicadelid species tested, H. liturata, G. atropunctata, Amblysellus grex (Orman), Erythroneura variabilis Beamer (variegated leafhopper), Macrosteles severini, and Circulifer tenellus (Baker) (beet leafhopper) (Krugner et al. Kazmer, David J., Luck, Robert F. 1995. A key to the Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) egg parasitoids of proconiine sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in the Nearctic region, with description of two new species of, Triapitsyn, S.V., Logarzo, G.A., De León, J.H., Virla, E.G., 2008. fastidiosa related diseases (Siebert 2001). These bi-weekly surveys have documented that natural enemies provide, on average, year round around egg parasitism of ~25% which may have been sufficient to cause the observed declines in GWSS densities. A study conducted by the University of California found that between 1994 and 2000, Pierce’s disease caused nearly $30 million in losses and destroyed over 1,000 acres of grape vines in Northern California (CDFA 2008). Glassy-winged sharpshooter on a grape leaf - Peggy Greb USDA, Agricultural Research Service. Environmental risk assessment of egg parasitoids from South America: non-target field and laboratory host range in Argentina and the U. S. In: Tariq, M. A., Blincoe, P., Mochel, M., Oswalt, S., Esser, T. Contact: Nic Irvin, Biological Control Specialist and Research Scholar nic.irvin@ucr.edu, 1 Introduction2 Economic Impact3 Classical Biological Control Furthermore, 39.6% of time allocated by female G. fasciatus was spent off leaves with GWSS egg masses, and it was observed that G. ashmeadi and G. triguttatus often aggressively protected the GWSS egg mass, sometimes excluding access by G. fasciatus. In: Gurr, G. M., Wratten, S. D., Altieri, M. A. This insect is native to the southeastern United States and was most likely brought into southern California accidentally as … Miller, W. E. 1989. In: denBoer, P. J., Gradwell, G. R. Pierce's disease control program - report to the legislature, May 2003 [Online]. H. liturata and D. minerva were parasitized by G. fasciatus under a small scale Petri dish environment, thereby both proving to be physiological acceptable hosts for G. fasciatus. The Sharpshooter is native to the southeastern United States, but was probably introduced to California around 1990. The ingest ion of dry sugars by adult entomophagous insects and the use of this feeding habit for measuring the moisture needs of parasites. Johnson, J. Although G. ashmeadi shares these characteristics with pro-ovigenic species (i.e., species that are born with a full complement of eggs at birth and do not mature more eggs as they are oviposited [Jervis et al., 2001]), evidence of oosorption and the process of egg maturation demonstrated in recent laboratory studies suggest that G. ashmeadi is a syn-ovigenic species which can mature more eggs in excess of those females are initially born with (Irvin and Hoddle, 2009). The parasitoid was released on May 2, 2005 on Tahiti. 2007, Irvin, N. A., Hoddle, M. S., Morgan, D. J. W. 2006, Irvin, N.A., Hoddle, M.S., Suarez-Espinoza, J., 2009, College of Natural & Agricultural Sciences, This species is gregarious in nature and smaller in size compared with. Similar poor results have resulted for G. fasciatus and mass production and release of this parasitoid was discontinued due to poor recovery rates (CDFA, 2008). 1998. A large insect - almost ½ inch (12mm) long - the glassy-winged sharpshooter is dark brown to black with a lighter underside. However, herbicide and insecticide use in citrus orchards (preferred GWSS breeding and overwintering areas) and vineyards and extreme orchard hygiene can remove potential floral resources (e.g., weeds) that would provide food for parasitoids. )], and the Cook Islands [established 2007 (Disna Gunawardana pers. Choice and no-choice assay designs would need to be conducted to determine if similar levels of polyphagy would be observed in areas where releases of G. tuberculifemur would be considered (i.e. GWSS transmits and spreads the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Gonatocerus tuberculifemur is a common and widespread parasitoid that attacks eggs of Proconiini sharpshooters in Argentina and Chile in South America. 2006a. 1998). The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) is an introduced pest that spreads the bacterium Xylella fastidi-osa, which causes a variety of diseases such as Pierce's disease in grapevines and leaf scorch in oleanders. Observations on the biology of, Triapitsyn S.V., Phillips, P.A. There are overviews of current and eradicated infested areas throughout the state, and maps that are designed to clearly show the boundaries of the infested areas for the partially infested counties. Ellers, Jacintha, Van Alphen, Jacques J. M., Sevenster, Jan G. 1998. 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